# Richard von Mises

Richard von Mises | |
---|---|

Born | 19 April 1883 |

Died | 14 July 1953 Boston, Massachusetts, US | (aged 70)

Education | Vienna University of Technology |

Known for | von Mises distribution Von Mises transformation Von Mises statistic Bernstein–von Mises theorem Cramér–von Mises criterion von Mises yield criterion Von Mises–Fisher distribution Random sequence Sample space V-statistic |

Spouse | Hilda Geiringer |

Relatives | Ludwig von Mises (brother) |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, aeronautics, statistics and probability theory |

Institutions | Brno University of Technology University of Strasbourg TU Dresden Humboldt University of Berlin University of Istanbul Harvard University |

Doctoral advisor | Georg Hamel |

Doctoral students | Geoffrey S. S. Ludford Stefan Bergman Hermine Agavni Kalustyan |

**Richard Martin Edler von Mises**^{[1]} (German: [fɔn ˈmiːzəs]; 19 April 1883 – 14 July 1953) was an Austrian scientist and mathematician who worked on solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, aerodynamics, aeronautics, statistics and probability theory. He held the position of Gordon McKay Professor of Aerodynamics and Applied Mathematics at Harvard University. He described his work in his own words shortly before his death as:

practical analysis, integral and differential equations, mechanics, hydrodynamics and aerodynamics, constructive geometry, probability calculus, statistics and philosophy.

^{[2]}

Although best known for his mathematical work, von Mises also contributed to the philosophy of science as a neo-positivist and empiricist, following the line of Ernst Mach. Historians of the Vienna Circle of logical empiricism recognize a "first phase" from 1907 through 1914 with Philipp Frank, Hans Hahn, and Otto Neurath.^{[citation needed]}^{[3]} His older brother, Ludwig von Mises, held an opposite point of view with respect to positivism and epistemology. His brother developed *praxeology*, an *a priori* view.^{[4]}

During his time in Istanbul, Mises maintained close contact with Philipp Frank,^{[5]} a logical positivist and Professor of Physics in Prague until 1938. His literary interests included the Austrian novelist Robert Musil and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke, on whom he became a recognized expert.^{[6]}

## Life[edit]

Von Mises was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary into a Jewish family, eighteen months after his brother Ludwig von Mises, who became a prominent economist of the Austrian School, a heterodox school of economics. His parents were Arthur Edler von Mises, a doctor of technical sciences who worked for the Austrian State Railways, and Adele Landau. Richard and Ludwig had a younger brother, Karl von Mises, who died as an infant from Scarlet Fever.^{[7]} Richard attended the Akademisches Gymnasium in Vienna, from which he graduated with honors in Latin and mathematics in autumn 1901. After graduating in mathematics, physics and engineering from the Vienna University of Technology, he was appointed as Georg Hamel's assistant in Brünn (Brno). In 1905, still a student, he published an article on the geometry of curves called "Zur konstruktiven Infinitesimalgeometrie der ebenen Kurven," in the prestigious *Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik*.

In 1908, von Mises was awarded a doctorate from Vienna (his dissertation was on "the determination of flywheel masses in crank drives") and he received his habilitation from Brünn (Brno) (on "Theory of the Waterwheels") to lecture on engineering. In 1909, at 26, he was appointed professor of applied mathematics in Straßburg, then part of the German Empire (later Strasbourg, Alsace, France) and received Prussian citizenship. His application for a teaching position at the Brno University of Technology was interrupted by the First World War.

Before the war he had already become a pilot and lectured on aircraft design, and in 1913 at Strasbourg he gave the first university course on powered flight. At the outbreak of war it was natural for him to join the Austro-Hungarian army as a test pilot and a flying instructor. In 1915, he supervised the construction of a 600-horsepower (450 kW) aircraft – the "Mises-Flugzeug" (Mises aircraft) for the Austrian army. It was completed in 1916 but never saw active service.

After the war, von Mises held the new chair of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics at the Dresden *Technische Hochschule*. In 1919 he was appointed director and full professor at the new Institute of Applied Mathematics created at the behest of Erhard Schmidt at the University of Berlin. In 1921 he founded the journal *Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik* and became its editor.^{[8]}

With the rise of the National Socialist Party to power in 1933, Mises felt his position threatened,^{[citation needed]} despite his First World War military service. He moved to Turkey, where he assumed the new chair of pure and applied mathematics at the University of Istanbul. In 1939 he accepted a position in the United States, where in 1944 he was appointed as Gordon McKay Professor of Aerodynamics and Applied Mathematics at Harvard University. In 1943 he married Hilda Geiringer, a mathematician who had been his assistant at the Institute and moved with him to Turkey and then to the U.S.

In 1950, von Mises declined honorary membership from the Communist-dominated East German Academy of Science.

## Contributions[edit]

In aerodynamics, von Mises made advances in boundary-layer flow theory and airfoil design. He developed the *distortion energy theory* of stress, an important factor in material strength calculations.

His ideas were not universally well received, although Alexander Ostrowski had said of him: "Only with the appointment of Richard von Mises to the University of Berlin did the first serious German school of applied mathematics with a broad sphere of influence come into existence. Von Mises was an incredibly dynamic person and at the same time amazingly versatile like Runge. He was especially well versed in the realm of technology." and also wrote "Because of his dynamic personality his occasional major blunders were somehow tolerated. One has even forgiven him his theory of probability." Yet Andrey Kolmogorov, whose rival axiomatisation was better received, was less severe: "The basis for the applicability of the results of the mathematical theory of probability to real 'random phenomena' must depend on some form of the frequency concept of probability, the unavoidable nature of which has been established by von Mises in a spirited manner."

In probability theory, he proposed the famous "birthday problem".^{[9]} He also defined the impossibility of a gambling system.^{[10]}^{[11]}

In solid mechanics, von Mises contributed to the theory of plasticity by formulating the von Mises yield criterion, independently of Tytus Maksymilian Huber.

He is often credited for the Principle of Maximum Plastic Dissipation.

The Gesellschaft für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik^{[12]} (Society of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics) awards a Richard von Mises Prize^{[13]} since 1989.

## Bibliography[edit]

### Books[edit]

- Richard von Mises, Philipp Frank, Heinrich Weber, Bernhard Riemann,
*Die Differential- und Integralgleichungen der Mechanik und Physik*, 1925, 1930. - Richard von Mises,
*Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung und ihre Anwendungen in der Statistik und theoretischen Physik*, 1931. - Richard von Mises,
*The critical external pressure of cylindrical tubes under uniform radial and axial load*, (Translation of*Kritischer Außendruck zylindrischer Rohre*, 1917), U.S. Experimental Model Basin, Navy Yard, 1933. - Richard von Mises, P. Frank, H. Weber and B. Riemann,
*Die Differential- und Integralgleichungen der Mechanik und Physik*, 2nd expanded. ed., 2 vols. New York, Mary S. Rosenberg: 1943. - Richard von Mises, W. Prager and G. Kuerti,
*Theory of Flight*, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1945. - Richard Von Mises,
*Rilke in English,: A tentative bibliography*, The Cosmos press, 1947 - Richard von Mises,
*Notes on mathematical theory of compressible fluid flow*, Harvard University, Graduate School of Engineering, 1948. - Richard von Mises,
*On Bergman's integration method in two-dimensional compressible fluid flow*, Harvard University, Graduate School of Engineering, 1949. - Richard von Mises,
*On the thickness of a steady shock wave*, Harvard University, Dept. of Engineering, 1951 - Presented to Richard von Mises by Friends, Colleagues and Pupils,
*Studies in Mathematics and Mechanics*, New York, 1954. - Richard von Mises,
*Positivism: A Study in Human Understanding*, G. Braziller, 1956. ISBN 0-486-21867-8 (Paperback, Dover, 1968 ISBN 0-486-21867-8). - Richard von Mises, Hilda Geiringer & Geoffrey S. S. Ludford,
*Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow*. New York, Academic Press, 1958. - Richard von Mises,
*Theory of Flight*, New York, Dover, 1959. ISBN 0-486-60541-8 - Richard von Mises,
*Selected Papers of Richard von Mises*, 2 volumes, AMS, Rhode Island, 1963, 1964. - Richard von Mises,
*Mathematical Theory of Probability and Statistics*, New York, Academic Press, 1964. - Richard von Mises,
*Probability and Statistics, General*, American Mathematical Society, 1964. - Heinrich Sequenz ed.
*150 Jahre Technische Hochschule in Wien. 1815–1965*, Festschrift in 3 Volumes, Springer Verlag, Wien, New York, 1965. - Richard von Mises and K. O. Friedrichs,
*Fluid Dynamics*, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1971. ISBN 0-387-90028-4 - M. Pinl & L. Furtmüller,
*Mathematicians under Hitler*, In Year Book XVIII of the Leo Baeck Institute, London, 1973. - Richard von Mises, Theodore Von Karman,
*Advances in Applied Mechanics*, Academic Press, 1975. ISBN 0-12-002015-7 - W. Roeder & H. A. Strauss,
*International Biographical Dictionary of Central European Émigrés 1933–1945*, Saur, München, New York, London, Paris, 1980–1983. - Richard von Mises,
*Probability, Statistics and Truth*, 2nd rev. English ed., New York, Dover, 1981. ISBN 0-486-24214-5 - Richard von Mises,
*Kleines Lehrbuch des Positivismus. Einführung in die empiristische Wissenschaftsauffassung*, Suhrkamp, 1990. ISBN 3-518-28471-1 - Richard von Mises, Wolfgang Gröbner, Wolfgang Pauli,
*Österreichische Mathematik und Physik*, Die Zentralbibliothek, 1993. ISBN 3-900490-03-1 - Robert Winter,
*Das Akademische Gymnasium in Wien. Vergangenheit und Gegenwart*, Wien, Köln, Weimar 1996. - R. Siegmund-Schultze,
*Mathematiker auf der Flucht vor Hitler. Quellen und Studien zur Emigration einer Wissenschaft*, Braunschweig und Wiesbaden, Vieweg, 1998.

### Articles[edit]

- R. v. Mises, "Zur konstruktiven Infinitesimalgeometrie der ebenen Kurven,"
*Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik*, 52, 1905, pp. 44–85. - R. v. Mises, "Zur Theorie der Regulatoren",
*Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau*37, 1908, pp. 783–789.

## See also[edit]

- Birthday problem
- Impossibility of a gambling system
- Bernstein–von Mises theorem
- Cramér–von Mises criterion
- von Mises distribution

## Notes[edit]

**^**Regarding personal names:was a title before 1919, but now is regarded as part of the surname. It is translated as a*Edler**noble (one)*. Before the August 1919 abolition of nobility as a legal class, titles preceded the full name when given (*Graf Helmuth James von Moltke*). Since 1919, these titles, along with any nobiliary prefix (*von*,*zu*, etc.), can be used, but are regarded as a dependent part of the surname, and thus come after any given names (*Helmuth James Graf von Moltke*). Titles and all dependent parts of surnames are ignored in alphabetical sorting. The feminine form is*Edle*.**^**Norman L. Johnson; Samuel Kotz (26 September 2011).*Leading Personalities in Statistical Sciences: From the Seventeenth Century to the Present*. John Wiley & Sons. p. 385. ISBN 978-1-118-15072-6.**^**Stadler, Friedrich (2003).*The Vienna Circle and Logical Empiricism: Re-Evaluation and Future Perspectives*. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. XIII. ISBN 978-0-306-48214-4.**^**kanopiadmin (15 December 2004). "Ludwig von Mises: A Scholar Who Would Not Compromise - Fritz Machlup".**^**Frank, P (11 June 1954), "The Work of Richard von Mises: 1883–1953.",*Science*, vol. 119, no. 3102, pp. 823–824, Bibcode:1954Sci...119..823F, doi:10.1126/science.119.3102.823, PMID 17746140**^**O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (10 April 1016). "Richard von Mises".*Mactutor Archive - School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland*. JOC/EFR. Retrieved 25 July 2016.**^**Ryan Minnich,*Ludwig von Mises: Protector of the Free Market***^**"Wiley-VCH - ZAMM".*www.wiley-vch.de*.**^**Frank, P.; Goldstein, S.; Kac, M.; Prager, W.; Szegö, G.; Birkhoff, G., eds. (1964).*Selected Papers of Richard von Mises*. Vol. 2. Providence, Rhode Island: Amer. Math. Soc. pp. 313–334.**^***Probability, Statistics and Truth*by Richard von Mises 1928/1981 Dover, ISBN 0-486-24214-5 page 25**^***Counting for something: statistical principles and personalities*by William Stanley Peters 1986 ISBN 0-387-96364-2 page 3**^**e.V., GAMM. "GAMM e.V. - Start".*www.gamm-ev.de*.**^**"Richard-von-Mises-Preis". 13 February 2005. Archived from the original on 13 February 2005.

## References[edit]

- Biography in
*Dictionary of Scientific Biography*, New York, 1970–1990. - Biography in
*Encyclopædia Britannica*.

### Further reading[edit]

- A. Basch, "Richard von Mises zum 70. Geburtstag",
*Osterreich. Ing.-Arch.*7, 1953, pp. 73–76. - B. Bernhardt, "Skizzen zu Leben und Werk von Richard Mises", in
*Österreichische Mathematik und Physik*, Wien, Zentralbibliothek für Physik, 1993, pp. 51–62. - H. Bernhardt, "Zum Leben und Wirken des Mathematikers Richard von Mises",
*NTM Schr. Geschichte Natur. Tech. Medizin*16 (2), 1979, pp. 40–49. - G. Birkhoff, "Richard von Mises' years at Harvard",
*Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik*63 (7), 1983, pp. 283–284. - L. Collatz, "Richard von Mises als numerischer Mathematiker",
*Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik*(7), 1983, pp. 278–280. - H. Cramér, "Richard von Mises' work in probability and statistics",
*Ann. Math. Statistics*24, 1953, pp. 657–662. - D. v. Dalen, "The War of the Frogs and the Mice or the Crisis of the 'Mathematische Annalen'",
*The Mathematical Intelligencer*12 (1990), No.4, pp. 17–31. - Gaye Erginoz, "An Emigrant Scientist in Istanbul University: Richard Martin Edler von Mises (1883-1953)",2011, Almagest
- H. Föllmer and K. Küchler, "Richard von Mises", in
*Mathematics in Berlin*, Berlin, 1998, pp. 55–60. - J. Förste, "Zum 100. Geburtstag von Richard von Mises",
*Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik*63 (7), 1983, p. 277. - P. Frank, "The work of Richard von Mises: 1883–1953",
*Science*119, 1954, pp. 823–824. - A. Haussner, "Geschichte der Deutschen Technischen Hochschule in Brünn 1849–1924." In
*Festschrift der Deutschen Technischen Hochschule in Brünn zur Feier ihres fünfundsiebzigjährigen Bestandes im Mai 1924*, Verlag der Deutschen Technischen Hochschule, Brünn, 1924, pp. 5–92. - G. S. S. Ludford, "Mechanics in the applied- mathematical world of von Mises",
*Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik*63 (7), 1983, pp. 281–282. - R. Sauer, "Nachruf: Richard von Mises",
*Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Jbuch.*1953, pp. 194–197. - R. Sauer, "Richard von Mises 19. 4. 1883 – 14. 7. 1953" (in German),
*Bayer. Akad. Wiss. Jbuch.*1953, pp. 194–197 - M. Schield and T. Burnham. "Von Mises’ Frequentist Approach to Probability." 2008 American Statistical Association Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Education. pp. 2187-2194. See www.statlit.org/pdf/2008SchieldBurnhamASA.pdf
- R. Siegmund-Schultze, "Hilda Geiringer von Mises, Charlier Series, Ideology, and the human side of the emancipation of applied mathematics at the University of Berlin during the 1920s",
*Historia Mathematica*20, 1993, 364–381. - P. Sisma, "Georg Hamel and Richard von Mises in Brno",
*Historia Mathematica*, 29, 2002, pp. 176–192. - A. Szafarz, "Richard von Mises: l'échec d'une axiomatique",
*Dialectica*38 (4), 1984, pp. 311–317. - M. van Lambalgen, "Randomness and foundations of probability: von Mises' axiomatisation of random sequences", in
*Statistics, probability and game theory*, Hayward, CA, 1996, pp. 347–367. - J. Weinhold, "Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Technischen Hochschule in Brünn, Rückblicke und Vergleiche", Südetendeutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften und Künste,
*Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse*, 1991.

## External links[edit]

*.*

**Richard von Mises**- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Richard von Mises",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive*, University of St Andrews - Richard von Mises at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Biography, in Czech

- 1883 births
- 1953 deaths
- Scientists from Lviv
- Jewish emigrants from Austria after the Anschluss to the United States
- Jews from Galicia (Eastern Europe)
- Austrian mathematicians
- Austrian physicists
- Edlers of Austria
- Logical positivism
- Vienna Circle
- Austrian expatriates in Turkey
- Expatriate academics in Turkey
- Academic staff of Istanbul University
- Harvard University Department of Mathematics faculty
- Fluid dynamicists
- Aerodynamicists
- Probability theorists
- TU Wien alumni
- Mathematicians from Austria-Hungary
- Academic staff of TU Dresden
- Mathematical statisticians